Our fertility services
Fertility clinic in San Diego
What is Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT)?
Genetic testing of embryos is a state-of-the-art procedure, which enables us to screen embryos for genetic diseases before the embryos are transferred into the uterus. The purpose of this is to decrease the likelihood of finding chromosomal abnormalities, once the patient is pregnant, during prenatal diagnosis with tests such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or fetal blood cell testing. In order for PGT to be performed a patient must undergo IVF.
Who Would Benefit from PGT/PGS
Some of the patients who would benefit from PGT include:
- Couples where one or both partners are carriers of an inherited genetic disorder.
- IVF patients over the age of 35.
- Patients with diminished ovarian reserve, regardless of their age.
- Patients who have had 2 or more failed IVF cycles.
- Patients with multiple miscarriages.
- Couples interested in gender of sex selection.
What are the limitations of PGT?
Some of the important things to keep in mind are that:
- PGT cannot screen for all genetic diseases.
- Normal results do not completely eliminate the risk of genetic diseases.
- It is possible for all of your embryos to be abnormal in which case a transfer cannot be performed and the cycle is cancelled.
- There is a very small risk (0.1%) that the embryo may be damaged during the biopsy procedure.
- Misdiagnosis due to a phenomenon called mosaicism is possible. This is because not all of the cells in an embryo are the same. In the past the vast majority of patients had biopsies performed on day 3 embryos where only one cell was removed. If this cell was the only abnormal one in an otherwise normal embryo, then an otherwise normal embryo would have been discarded. Conversely, if the one cell biopsied was the only normal cell in an otherwise abnormal embryo, an abnormal embryo would have been inadvertently transferred. This is why at the Fertility Institute of San Diego, we primarily perform the embryo biopsy on day 5 as on this day the embryo has hundreds of cells and it is possible to remove 5-10 cells for testing thereby minimizing the problem of mosaicism.
- PGT is not considered a replacement for prenatal testing.
An egg donation cycle can be carried out in two different ways:
Fresh Embryo Cycle
The donor and recipient cycle are coordinated to carry out a fresh embryo transfer. This type of cycle is usually easier for the recipient than a traditional IVF cycle. The donor is controlled in our clinic and the recipient only needs to be present in the city for the embryo transfer. Since a sperm sample is required on the day of egg retrieval, most couples arrive by this time and can return to their places of residence after the embryo transfer. Alternatively, if your sperm parameters allow it, a sperm sample that has been previously frozen can be used so that you can shorten your stay even a little longer and only the presence of the person to whom the transfer will be made will be needed. embryo at the time of said procedure.
Frozen embryo transfer cycle
In this case, the donor is monitored, the eggs are cultured and fertilized, and the resulting embryos are grown by culturing them. They are usually cryogenized or frozen in the blastocyst phase. A sperm sample is required on the day of the egg retrieval and depending on your circumstances, a fresh sperm sample or alternatively a frozen sperm sample stored in our facilities can be used. Next, the recipient’s cycle is coordinated so that the approximate day of the embryo transfer is determined in advance so that it is convenient for you. You can begin preparation for this cycle at your place of residence and arrive in San Diego near the time of the embryo transfer.
What is Egg Freezing?
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine no longer considers egg freezing or cryopreservation experimental. Egg freezing involves stimulating the ovaries with gonadotropins, undergoing an egg retrieval to extract the eggs, freezing and then storing these eggs. The eggs can be stored for several years and when one is ready to use them, the eggs are thawed, fertilized with sperm to create embryos and transferred into the uterus.
Advances in cryoprotectants and the new vitrification protocols have resulted in significant survival rates compared to the slow freezing protocols used in the past. This innovative procedure better protects the delicate cell structure of the unfertilized egg by preventing the formation of ice crystals in the egg and as a result they are less likely to fracture upon thawing.
This new egg freezing technology has revolutionized the field of reproductive medicine in that for the very first time, women now have a means to stop their biological clock. To date, approximately 2,000 babies have been born from frozen eggs. There appears to be no increased risk of birth defects when compared to the general population.
Who Would Benefit From Egg Freezing?
Some of the patients who would benefit from egg freezing include:
- Women diagnosed with cancer prior to undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
- Women undergoing IVF for whom embryo freezing or cryopreservation is not an option for ethical, religious or moral reasons.
- Women who must undergo surgery to remove their ovaries due to diseases such as endometriosis.
- Women with a family history of premature menopause who may wish to freeze eggs before their eggs are depleted at an early age.
- Single women in their 20s and early to mid 30s who desire to delay becoming pregnant due to the pursuit of career or educational goals, not having met their life partner, or for other personal or medical reasons.
Options to increase the family:We can help our patients in many ways to reach their goal of becoming a parent depending on the situation and diagnosis. We make treatments tailored to your needs with the respectful care you deserve. Dr. Hosseinzadeh will review all available options so that you can make an informed decision about the best treatment for you.
Options to increase the family in the case of men:Available treatments options include: The use of “traditional surrogacy” for single men and homosexual couples. In this case, the pregnant mother harbors an embryo conceived with her own eggs and with the sperm of the man who wishes to have a child. This can be achieved through intrauterine insemination (IUI) or through in vitro fertilization (IVF). The surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child and this makes this type of surrogacy more risky from the legal point of view since the surrogate mother can change her mind and decide that she is the mother of the child and that she wishes to keep him. Using an egg donor and a “pregnant mother”. In this case, IVF is carried out and the donor’s eggs are fertilized with the sperm of the man who wishes to become a father. Thus, only one or two embryos are transferred into the pregnant mother’s uterus, which in this case has no biological connection with the child. Since this option is less risky from a legal point of view, this is the option we recommend for most of our patients.
CLÍNICA DE FERTILIDAD SAN DIEGO
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Agradecemos la oportunidad de responder cualquier pregunta que pueda tener sobre su tratamiento de fertilidad. Aquí, en el Instituto de Fertilidad de San Diego , lo tratarán con compasión y cuidado .